The siamang inhabits the forest remnants of Sumatra Island and the Malay Peninsula, and is widely distributed from lowland forest to mountain forest—even rainforest—and can be found at altitudes up to 3800 m. The siamang lives in groups of up to six individuals (four individuals on average) with an average home range of 23 hectares. When it eats big and hard seeds or seeds with sharp edges, it peels out the fruit flesh and throws away the seed. Behaviour. a Siamang looks like a ape. They forage for food in the forests during the day with most of their diet being made up of leaves and fruit. Calling trees are usually near feeding trees, but sometimes they call in the feeding trees. (1996). The palm oil production industry is clearing large swaths of forest, reducing the habitat of the siamang, along with those of other species, such as the Sumatran tiger. Counter (co-response) calling occasionally happens near the border or in the overlap area. In the 1980s, the Indonesian population of the siamang in the wild was estimated to be 360,000 individuals. The siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) is an arboreal black-furred gibbon native to the forests of Malaysia, Thailand, and Sumatra. Grooming takes place between the adults earlier in the day, and then the adults groom the juveniles later in the day. siamang synonyms, siamang pronunciation, siamang translation, ... syndactylus, of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, having a large reddish-brown vocal sac beneath the chin and the second and third toes united [C19: from Malay] Collins English Dictionary ... lesser ape - gibbons and siamangs. Reaching as much as 36 inches (91 centimeters) in height, siamangs are the largest of the gibbons and are distinguished by a large gray or pink sac located under the chin. B. Siamangs also have webbing between their second and third toes, and they can carry and grasp things with both their hands and feet. (2008). Rowe, Noel.  Siamang males tend to offer more paternal care than do other members of the family Hylobatidae, taking up a major role in carrying an infant after it is about 8 months old. In addition, males chase each other across the boundary. Their gestation is 7-8 months long. They also eat flowers, tree bark, plant shoots and seeds, as well as bird eggs, Humans have had a large role in the decline of the siamang. Two of the fingers on foot are fused together, aiding their grip. I found an interesting read from the Malay Archipelago (Vol 1) by Alfred Russel Wallace, MacMillan and Co. 1869, on his observations of the Siamang and thought it might be interesting to share it here: “A very curious ape, the Siamang, was also rather abundant, but it is much less bold than the monkeys, keeping to the virgin forests and avoiding villages. Seed dispersal by siamang (. They start their life by clinging to the fur of the mother who will carry the infant through the forest. These calls can travel up to 2km (1mile). Branch shaking, swinging, and moving around the tree crowns accompany the calling. When a siamang eats fruits the seeds are deposited around the forest in their feces and this helps lead to a greater diversity of trees in their habitat. Siamangs are rare, small, slender, long-armed, tree-dwelling (lesser) apes. Males and females perform their call as a duet and this helps to strengthen family bonds. They forage for food in the forests during the day with most of their diet being made up of leaves and fruit. Young siamangs are completely black. Gibbons and siamang (family Hylobatidae ) are the smallest of the extant apes and have geographically always been restricted to Asia. 2020.  These illegal activities devastated the remaining tropical rainforest, especially in Sumatra. Siamang | San Diego Zoo Animals & Plants. According to Dr. John M. Kirsch, a board-certified orthopedic surgeon who wrote a book efficiently titled Shoulder Pain?, human beings still possess a similar shoulder structure to those of apes. They forage for food in the forests during the day with most of … (1996) "Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates" Charlestown, RI: Pagonia Press, Nurcahyo, A. Siamang. , Grooming frequency between males and females has been found to correlate to copulation frequency, as well as bouts of aggression. Arterra/Universal Images Group via Getty Images. Infants are entirely black. The siamang starts its day by calling in the early morning; it calls less after midday, with the peak of the calls around 9:00 to 10:00 am. Asia is the native home of the siamang. The siamang eats at least 160 species of plants, from vines to woody plants. This loud, throaty vocalization is amplified by the throat sac. These are twice as long as the body, allowing the siamang to swing along below branches. As an ape the siamang does not have a tail.  Their day ranges are substantially smaller than those of sympatric Hylobates species, often less than 1 km. Name: Siamang. Calls in the late morning typically happen when it meets or sees another siamang group. Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park in Space and Time. This allows siamangs to call over long distances in their native forests. They are threatened by habitat loss which is undertaken for logging, conversion of the land to plantations including for, Little Rhino Calf Joins the Family at The Wilds, Red-Tailed Guneon Swing In to the Maryland Zoo, Monarto Celebrate 20 years of Rhino Conservation, https://www.adelaidezoo.com.au/animals/siamang/, https://www.neprimateconservancy.org/siamang.html, https://nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/siamang, https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T39779A17967873.en, https://www.oaklandzoo.org/animals/siamang, https://animals.sandiegozoo.org/animals/siamang. The siamang in southern Sumatra undertakes less foraging than the siamang in other places because it eats more fruit, so consumes more nutrients, which results in less time needed for looking for food. Description and Physical Characteristics: A Siamang is a black or deep brown primate. Arms.  Fifthly, development in many areas needs infrastructure, such as roads, which now divide conservation areas and have caused forest fragmentation and edge effects. In Sumatra, the siamang prefers to inhabit lowland forest between 500 and 1000 m above sea level. Most of their movement occurs in the trees where they will swing from tree to tree assisted by their long arms. As an ape the siamang does not have a tail. The largest of the gibbons, the siamang can be twice the size of other gibbons, reaching 1 m in height, and weighing up to 14 kg. Siamangs appear to have a level of tolerance to habitat disturbance and can persist in some secondary forest areas. 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